Articles and Chapters

 

Epstein, M. L., & Ward, T. B. (1974).Recall of related and unrelated word pairs:Test of single continuum theory of memory.Perceptual and Motor Skills, 3, 141‑142.

 

Ghiselli, W. B., Thor, D. H., & Ward, T. B. (1974).A social fighting test of the Crosby‑Cahoon superstitious responding hypothesis inshock‑elicited aggression.Psychological Record, 24, 47-52.

 

Thor, D. H., Ghiselli, W. B., & Ward, T. B. (1974).Infantile handling and sex differences in shock‑elicited aggressive responding of hooded rats.Developmental Psychobiology, 7, 273‑279.

 

Winters, J. J., & Ward, T. B. (1975).The effects of induced passive rehearsal and the von Restorff phenomenon on the free recall of normals and retardates.Memory & Cognition, 3, 421‑426.

 

Ward, T. B., & Ross, L. E. (1977).Laterality differences and practice effects under central backward masking conditions. Memory & Cognition, 5, 221‑226.

 

Ross, L. E., & Ward, T. B. (1978).The processing of information from short‑term visual store:Developmental and intellectual leveldifferences.In N. R. Ellis (Ed.), International review of research in mental retardation, vol. 9, New York:Academic Press.

 

Ward, T. B. (1980).Separable and integral responding by children and adults to the dimensions of length and density.Child Development, 51, 676‑684. pdf

 

Ward, T. B. (1983).Response tempo and separable‑integral responding:Evidence for an integral‑to‑separable processing sequence invisual perception.Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 9, 103‑112.

 

Ward, T. B. (1984).Opinions on television advertising to children:A content analysis of letters to the FTC. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 30, 247‑259.

 

Ward, T. B. (1985).The media project:Enhancing student interest in the psychology of adolescence.Teaching of Psychology, 12, 87‑89.

 

Francks, J. B., Smith, S. M., & Ward, T. B. (1985).The use of goggles for testing hemispheric asymmetry.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23, 487‑488.

 

Ward, T. B. (1985).Individual differences in processing stimulus dimensions:Relation to selective processing abilities. Perception & Psychophysics, 37, 471‑482.

 

Ward, T. B. (1986).Classifying by learning disabled and nondisabled children:Use of overall similarity versus dimensional relations.Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 24, 131‑134.

 

Ward, T. B., Foley, C. M., & Cole, J. (1986).Classifying multidimensional stimuli:Stimulus, task, and observer factors.Journal of Experimental Psychology:Human Perception and Performance, 12, 211‑225.

 

Ward, T. B., & Vela, E. (1986). Classifying color materials: Children are less holistic than adults.Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 42, 273‑302.

 

Ward, T. B., & Scott, J. G. (1987).Analytic and holistic modes of learning family‑resemblance concepts.Memory & Cognition, 15, 42‑54.

 

Ward, T. B., & Lewis, S. (1987).The influence of alcohol and loud music on analytic and holistic processing.Perception & Psychophysics, 41, 179‑186.

 

Ward, T. B. (1987).Acquisition of criterial attribute and family‑resemblance concepts by learning disabled and nondisabled children.Child Study Journal, 17, 239‑250.

 

Ward, T. B. (1988).When is category learning holistic?A reply to Kemler Nelson.Memory & Cognition, 16, 85‑89.

 

Ward, T. B. (1989).Analytic and holistic modes of processing in category learning.In B. E. Shepp & S. Ballesteros (Eds.), Object perception:Structure and process.Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

 

Ward, T. B., Vela, E., Peery, M. L., Lewis, S. N., Bauer, N. K., & Klint, K. A. (1989).What makes a vibble a vibble?A developmentalstudy of category generalization.Child Development, 60, 214‑224. pdf

 

Ward, T. B., Stagner, B. H., Scott, J. G., Marcus--Mendoza, S. T., & Turner, D. (1989).Classification behavior and measures of intelligence:Dimensional identity versus overallsimilarity.Perception & Psychophysics, 45, 71‑76.

 

Ward, T. B., Vela, E., & Hass, S. D. (1990). Children and adults learn family‑resemblance categories analytically. Child Development, 61, 593-605. pdf

 

Ward, T. B. (1990).Further comments on the attribute availability hypothesis of children's category learning. Child Development, 61, 611-613. pdf

 

Ward, T. B. (1990).The role of labels in directing children's attention.In J. T. Enns (Ed.), The development of attention:Research and theory.Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers (North‑Holland).

 

Becker, A. H., & Ward, T. B. (1991).Children's use of shape in extending novel labels to animate objects: Identity versus postural change. Cognitive Development, 6, 3-16.

 

Ward, T. B., Becker, A. H., Hass, S. D., & Vela, E. (1991). Attribute availability and the shape bias in children's category generalization. Cognitive Development, 6, 143-167.

 

Ward, T. B., & Becker, A. H. (1992).Learning categories with and without trying:Does it make a difference?In B. M. Burns (Ed.), Percepts, concepts and categories: The representation and processing of information.Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers (North-Holland).

 

Ward, T. B., & Becker, A. H. (1992). Commentary: Not just any category: The representation of the self in memory, J. F. Kroll & F. M. Deutsch. In B. M. Burns (Ed.), Percepts, concepts and categories: The representation and processing of information. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers (North-Holland).

 

Ward, T. B. (1993).Processing biases, knowledge, and context in category formation.In G. V. Nakamura, R. M. Taraban, & D. L. Medin (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation (vol. 29): Categorization by humans and machines. Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

 

Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., & Schumacher, J. (1993).Constraining effects of examples in a creative generation task. Memory & Cognition, 21, 837-845.

 

Ward, T. B. (1994).Structured imagination: The role of category structure in exemplar generation.Cognitive Psychology, 27, 1-40. pdf

 

Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., & Finke, R. A. (1995). The creative cognition approach: Cognitive processes in creative contexts.In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward, & R. A. Finke (Eds.), The creative cognition approach.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

 

Ward, T. B. (1995).What's old about new ideas?In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward, & R. A. Finke (Eds.), The creative cognitionapproach.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

 

Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., & Finke, R. A. (1995).Paradoxes, principles, and prospects for the future of creative cognition.In S. M. Smith, T. B. Ward, & R. A. Finke (Eds.), The creative cognition approach.Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

 

Ward, T. B., Smith, S. M., & Vaid, J. (1997).Conceptual structures and processes in creative thought.In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith, & J. Vaid (Eds.), Creative thought: An investigation of conceptual structures and processes. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Books.

 

Ward, T. B., & Sifonis, S. M. (1997). Task demands and generative thinking: What changes and what remains the same? Journal of Creative Behavior, 31, 245-259.

 

Sifonis, C. M., Ward, T. B., Gentner, D., & Houska, M. (1997). Relation versus object mapping in creative generation.In M. G. Shafto & P. Langley (Eds.), Proceedings of the nineteenth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

Ward, T. B. (1998). Analogical distance and purpose in creative thought: Mental leaps versus mental hops.In K. Holyoak, D. Gentner, & B. Kokinov (Eds.), Advances in analogy research: Integration of theory and data from the cognitive, computational, and neural sciences. Sofia: New Bulgarian University. pdf

 

Sifonis, C. M., & Ward, T. B. (1998).Structural alignment in relational interpretations of conceptual combinations.In M. A. Gernsbacher & S. J. Derry (Eds.), Proceedings of the twentieth annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

 

Bredart, S., Ward, T. B., & Marczewski, P. (1998). Structured imagination of novel creatures' faces. American Journal of Psychology, 111, 607-725

 

Marsh, R. L., Ward, T. B., & Landau, J. D. (1999). Implicit learning expressed in a generative cognitive task. Memory & Cognition, 27, 94-105.pdf

 

Smith, S. M., & Ward, T. B. (1999). Evolution of creativity. In D. H. Rosen, R. Gardner, & M. Luebbert (Eds.) Evolution of the psyche.Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group (Praeger).

 

Ward, T. B., Smith, S. M., & Finke, R. A. (1999). Creative cognition. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

Ward, T. B., Saunders, K. N., & Dodds, R. A. (1999).Creative cognition in gifted adolescents.Roeper Review, 21, 260-265.

 

Smith, S. M., Ward, T. B., Tindell, D. R., Sifonis, C. M., & Wilkenfeld, M. J. (2000). Category structure and created memories.Memory & Cognition., 28, 386-395. pdf

 

Ward, T. B., Dodds, R. A., Saunders, K. N., & Sifonis, C. M. (2000). Attribute centrality and imaginative thought. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1387-1397. pdf

 

Ward, T. B. (2000). Normative and extraordinary creativity: Similarities and differences.In E. S. Malyanov, L. Shipitsina, L. Dorfman, S. Kornienko, & C. Martindale (Eds.) Creativity in education, culture, and art. Perm, Russia: Perm State Institute of Art and Culture.

 

Ward, T. B. (2001). Creative cognition, conceptual combination and the creative writing of Stephen R. Donaldson. American Psychologist, 56, 350-354.

 

Wilkenfeld, M. J., & Ward, T. B. (2001). Similarity and emergence in conceptual combination. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 21-38. pdf

 

Ward, T. B., Patterson, M. J., Sifonis, C. M., Dodds, R. A., & Saunders, K. N. (2002).The role of graded category structure in imaginative thought. Memory & Cognition, 30, 199-216.pdf

 

Dodds, R. A., Smith, S. M., & Ward, T. B. (2002).The use of environmental clues during incubation. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 287-304.

 

Ward, T. B., & Saunders, K. N. (2002). Creativity. In L. Nadel (Ed.). Encyclopedia of cognitive science. London: Nature Publishing Group Reference.

 

Estes, Z., & Ward, T. B. (2002). The emergence of novel attributes in concept modification. Creativity Research Journal, 14, 149-156. pdf

 

Dodds, R. A., Ward, T. B., & Smith, S. M. (in press). A review of the experimental literature on incubation in problem solving and creativity.In M. A. Runco (Ed.), Creativity research handbook, Vol. 3. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

 

Ward, T. B., Patterson, M. J. & Sifonis, C. (2004).The role of specificity and abstraction in creative idea generation. Creativity Research Journal 16, 1-9. pdf

 

Ward, T. B. (2004).Cognition, creativity and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing 19, 173-188. pdf

 

Baron, R. A., & Ward, T. B. (2004).Expanding entrepreneurial cognitionís toolbox: Potential contributions from the field of cognitive science. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 28, 553-574. pdf