TABLE OF CONTENTS
|UA Health and Safety Policy|
|(C) Injury Reporting|
|(D) Visitor and Contractor Safety|
|(E) Regulatory Agency Inspections|
|(F) Signs and Labels|
|(G) Animal Control|
|(H) First Aid|
|(J) Lifting, Walking & Standing|
|II. REGULATORY PROGRAMS|
|(A) Medical Waste|
|(B) Bloodborne Pathogens|
|(C) Hazardous Waste Management|
|(D) Chemical and Bulb Recycling|
|(E) Chemical Hygiene and Lab Safety|
|(F) Emergency Response|
|(G) Right to Know|
|(H) Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)|
|(I) SARA Title III|
|(J) Radiation Safety|
|(K) DOT Requirements|
|(L) Underground Storage Tanks|
|(M) Confined Space|
|(N) Lockout Tagout Procedures|
|(O) General Indoor Air Quality (IAQ)|
|(P) Indoor Air Quality - Smoking Policy|
|(Q) Indoor Air Quality – Mold|
|(R) Food Handling|
|(T) Asbestos Abatement|
|(U) Lead Abatement|
|(W) Analytical Chemistry Lab|
|(X) Asbestos Lab|
|III. BUILDING SAFETY|
|(A) Space Requirements|
|(B) Assembly Areas|
|(D) Corridors and Aisles|
|(H) Indoor Storage|
|(I) Freezers and Cold Storage|
|(J) General Ventilation|
|(K) Exhaust Ventilation|
|(O) Evacuation and Emergency Procedures|
|(R) Compressed Gases|
|(T) Ultraviolet Lamps|
|(U) Magnetic Field and Microwaves|
|IV. CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE SAFETY|
|(B) Electrical Safety|
|(C) Electrical Extension Cords|
|(D) Bonding and Grounding|
|(F) Floor Openings|
|(G) Asphalt Roofing|
|(J) Safety Belts and Lanyards|
|(L) Cables and Ropes|
|(M) Aerial Lifts|
|(N) Welding, Cutting and Brazing|
|(O) Woodworking Equipment|
|(P) Metalworking Equipment|
|(Q) Abrasive Wheels|
|(R) Moving Parts|
|(S) Outdoor Storage|
|(T) Heat Stress|
|(U) Cold Stress|
|(V) Mowers and Trimmers|
|(W) Tree Trimming|
|V. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT|
|(D) Eye Protection|
|(E) Eyewash and Showers|
|(F) Head Protection|
|(G) Hearing Protection|
|(H) Respiratory Protection|
|VI. FIRE SAFETY|
|(A) Fire Safety Devices|
|(B) Fire Alarm Systems|
|(D) Special Extinguishing Systems|
|(E) Sprinkler Systems|
|(F) Flammable Materials|
|VII. VEHICLE SAFETY|
|(A) Vehicle Operation|
|(B) Vehicle Accidents|
|(D) Fork Lifts|
|VIII. ROBOTIC SAFETY|
|(A) Guarding and Shielding|
|(B) Signage and Warnings|
|(D) Safety Features|
|Appendix A: DOCUMENTS AVAILABLE AT EHS|
|Appendix B: CHECKLIST FOR THE INSPECTION OF VEHICLES|
The University is committed to the principle that such a program will minimize University losses, reduce costs, improve morale and increase productivity.
For these reasons, the University requires that health promotion and accident prevention be integrated into all its academic and operational activities and has established a central Office of Environmental Health and Safety on campus. This office has been charged to oversee the development and implementation of an effective health and safety program. To best fulfill this responsibility, the Office of Environmental Health and Safety will develop and assist in implementing University guidelines and standards compatible with existing external agencies' rules and regulations. Compliance with all University health and safety guidelines will be required. All supervisory personnel shall bear primary responsibility for the health and safety concerns within their respective area.
The development of this safety manual represents a
significant achievement for the
The efforts of all University personnel are needed in order for safety to become an integral part of each job. With your assistance much progress has been made; with continual emphasis more progress will be made.
The Office of Environmental Health and Safety is committed to this effort. We believe our goals can be achieved by being responsive to the individual needs of employees and departments. If at any time we can assist you with information, advice or consultation, please let us know.
Director, Office of Environmental Health and Safety
The overall safety program of The University of Alabama is administered by Environmental Health and Safety (EHS).
The Office of EHS responds to the guidance and assistance of the Health and Safety Committee, Radiation Control Advisory Committee, Laser Safety Committee, Institutional Biological Safety Committee and Hazardous Material Advisory Committee.
Each unit or department administrator, supervisor and employee is responsible for compliance with guidelines, regulations and mandates as they apply to the University of Alabama (UA).
The purpose of the EHS training program is to reduce risk, minimize injuries and provide information to UA personnel and students.
The Office of EHS routinely provides training to University personnel and students on the following topics:
Right to Know (Required for all Employees)
Fire Safety Ergonomics
Proper Lifting Hazardous Material Management
Eye Protection Proper Use of Fire Extinguishers
Accident Prevention Lab Safety
Bloodborne Pathogen Safety Radiation Safety
Regulatory Compliance Laser Safety
Other training topics are provided as needed or requested.
EHS endeavors to incorporate a variety of media into each training session and to present the most accurate and up to date information possible.
To schedule a training session or to obtain further information, contact EHS at 348-5905. Additional information may be available in another document offered by EHS. See Appendix A for a listing of other documents available from EHS.
Specific training such as chemical hygiene, hazard communication, etc. shall be provided by the department in which the employee works.
All on-the-job injuries (OJI's) should be reported to the department or unit supervisor immediately and an on-the-job injury accident form should be completed and forwarded to Risk Management within forty-eight hours following the incident. Risk Management must be contacted immediately to assure approval of workman's compensation (348-4534 or Box 870119). If an injury occurs after hours, contact Risk Management the following workday.
An employee with an OJI that requires medical treatment should be sent to University Medical Center. If University Medical Center is closed, then the injured employee is to go to DCH Regional Medical Facility. It is in the employee's best interest to seek medical treatment immediately to prevent further injury or infection. The facilities at University Medical Center are available for limited out-patient emergency care at no cost to the employee. Employees are required to use University Medical Center except for extensive or major injuries which require a greater degree of care than University Medical Center can provide. If the employee chooses to go to another facility on his own, the OJI is not approved until treatment is received at University Medical Center. University Medical Center's hours of operation are available by calling (205) 348-1770.
Students injured on campus and requiring
medical treatment should complete a Student Injury Report. A copy of this form may be printed from
the EHS web page at
or obtained from
An OJI shall be reviewed by EHS in order to determine the facts relating to the incident. Contact is made with the employee or supervisor to assure unsafe conditions are corrected or unsafe acts are addressed. A memo is generated to the supervisor detailing what occurred and it also lists all previous OJI's by the employee. Recommendations for corrective action which may include training, counseling or written disciplinary action (when safety procedures were not followed) will be provided on this memo as well. Copies of this memo are distributed to those who need to review the information pertaining to the OJI at hand.
Questions concerning on the job injury reporting, injury treatment, etc. shall be addressed to Risk Management (348-4534).
Injury rates, statistics and comparisons shall be periodically distributed by EHS.
All visitors and contractors are responsible for following all OSHA, EPA, state, local and UA regulations and guidelines.
Contractors may obtain additional information from Construction Administration (348-5950).
In the event a regulatory compliance officer (OSHA, EPA, ADEM) visits the University campus in order to inspect the premises, the following procedures shall be observed.
Ask the officer to be seated until someone is available to assist him/her.
Contact the department head or responsible person to assist the compliance officer.
Notify EHS (348-5905).
The department head or responsible person and an EHS representative shall accompany the officer during the inspection or conference.
All press releases, comments, etc. shall be through University Relations.
First aid reports, worker compensation records and medical records shall not be provided except by approval of the Office of Counsel (348-5490).
Appropriate warning signs and/or labels shall be affixed to equipment or means of egress where the potential of a significant injury exists if certain procedures are not followed.
If warning signs and/or
labels are needed, they shall be conspicuously posted .
Warning signs and/or labels shall be easily read and of contrasting colors.
Specific signage and/or labels related to laboratories or specific hazards are contained in other documents that are available from EHS.
Animals shall not be brought onto the UA
campus unless they are under the complete control of the owner and present no
hazard to people.
Animals are not permitted in any UA building even though leashed, except for animals (dogs) assisting the physically impaired or animals involved in research projects.
Animals may not be tethered on campus.
Animals, including dogs and cats, found running at large or without evidence of current rabies vaccination are subject to confinement in the Tuscaloosa Animal Shelter.
Complaints concerning animals in UA buildings or running loose on campus should be reported to UA Pest Control Services at 348-6001.
Concerns relating to dead animals on the UA campus should contact Facilities Maintenance Landscape and Grounds Department or the work order clerk at 348-6001.
Each department/area within the University shall develop a written first aid policy.
The first aid policy shall address the following:
Allowable treatment (Band-Aids, etc.)
Action to be taken by departmental personnel
Notifications (UAPD, Departmental office,
, etc). Universit y Medica l Center
The first aid policy shall be maintained in the departmental office and shall be known by and available to faculty, staff, students and occupants of the department, and it shall be posted in all laboratory areas.
Clothing shall be in good condition, clean and appropriate to the work assignment.
Employees who work with machinery should wear well fitting shirts, pants, overalls, etc.
Unless instructed otherwise, employees must wear shoes while at work.
Safety shoes (steel toe) shall be worn by all personnel in certain designated occupations unless there are medical reasons to the contrary.
Jewelry should not be worn in circumstances when it may create a hazard (e.g. working around machinery, electrical equipment, etc.).
Long hair must be confined if the possibility of entanglement exists.
Electricians shall wear natural fiber clothing.
In general, a limit of 50 lbs. for men and 25 lbs. for women has been established for continuous or repetitive lifting.
Lift by bending your knees rather than bending your waist.
When lifting and carrying an object, hold it close to your body (no higher than chest level).
Do not twist while lifting an object.
Always test the load before lifting by rocking it back and forth to determine if it can be lifted
Push rather than pull when moving heavy objects.
Always walk with good posture and with your head held high, chin tucked in and toes straight ahead. Use your natural stride, and swing your arms naturally at your side when walking.
Always stand with one foot forward and knees slightly bent while maintaining good posture and change your position frequently to alleviate back pain.
When possible, use carts, dollies, etc. to lift or move objects.
The following lifting technique prescribed by EHS shall be used. Contact EHS for training.
Keep your feet apart for a stable base; point toes out.
Bend your knees. Don’t bend at your waist.
Tighten stomach muscles to support your spine when you lift. Lift with your legs, not your weaker back muscles. Keep your back up right.
Keep your load close to your body to keep the force of the load off your back.
Avoid twisting. Instead turn your leading foot 90 degrees toward the direction you want to turn.
Bring the lagging foot next to the leading foot. Do not twist your body.
Candles are prohibited from use on campus, unless approved by EHS.
Only artificial trees will be used during the Christmas season in UA buildings unless otherwise approved by EHS.
Turn off Christmas lights after working hours.
Assure all electrical cords are UL approved and are not frayed.
Electrical plugs must be in good condition and properly grounded.
Electrical circuits shall not be overloaded.
Assure food is not left out for extended
periods of time.
Contact EHS prior to the establishment of any seasonal decorations.
All materials defined as a medical waste shall be managed in accordance with the UA Medical Waste Management Plan, which is available from EHS.
A material classified as medical waste shall be defined as meeting one or more of the following criteria.
Animal Waste - carcasses and body parts of animals exposed to human infectious agents as a result of the animal being used for the production and/or testing of biological and pharmaceuticals or in research. Bulk blood, blood components and potentially infectious body fluids from these animals shall be handled as specified for human blood and body fluids. All materials discarded from surgical procedures involving these animals which are grossly contaminated with bulk blood, blood components, or body fluids shall be treated as specified in surgical waste.
Blood and Body Fluids - all human bulk blood, bulk blood components (serum and plasma, for example), and bulk laboratory specimens of blood, tissue, semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, and amniotic fluid. Precautions do not apply to feces, nasal secretion, sputum, sweat, tears, urine or vomitus unless they contain visible blood. Free flowing materials or items saturated to the point of dripping liquids containing visible blood or blood components would be treated/handled as bulk blood and bulk blood components.
Microbiological Waste - discarded cultures and stocks of human infectious agents and associated microbiological agents; human and animal cell cultures from medical and pathological laboratories; cultures and stocks of infectious agents from research and industrial laboratories; waste from the production of biologicals, discarded live and attenuated vaccines; culture dishes and devices used to transfer, inoculate and mix cultures. Only those animal vaccines which are potentially infectious to humans (Strain 19 Brucellosis Vaccine, Feline Pneumonitis Vaccine, contagious Eczema Vaccine for Sheep, Newcastle Disease Vaccine, Anthrax Spore Vaccine, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Vaccine) shall be considered microbiological waste.
Pathological Waste - all discarded human tissues, organs and body parts which are removed during surgery, obstetrical procedures, autopsy, laboratory, embalming, or other medical procedures, or traumatic amputation. Extracted teeth are included in this definition.
Renal Dialysis Waste - all liquid waste from renal dialysis contaminated with peritoneal fluid of with human blood visible to the human eye. Solid renal dialysis waste is considered medical waste if it is saturated, having the potential to drip or splash regulated blood or body fluids contained in the above.
Sharps - any used or unused discarded article that may cause punctures or cuts and which has been or is intended for use in animal or human medical care, medical research, or in laboratories utilizing microorganisms. Such waste includes, but is not limited to, hypodermic needles, IV tubing with needles attached, scalpel blades, and syringes (with or without a needle attached). Items listed above that have been removed from their original sterile containers are included in this definition. Glassware, blood vials, pipettes, and similar items are to be handled as sharps if they are contaminated with blood or body fluids.
Surgical Waste - all materials discarded from surgical procedures which are contaminated with human bulk blood, blood components, or body fluids, including but not limited to, disposable gowns, dressing, sponges, lavage tubes, drainage sets, underpads, and surgical gloves. Discarded material is considered medical waste if it is saturated, having the potential to drip or splash regulated blood or body fluids contained in the above.
The University Bloodborne Pathogen Policy was developed in 1993 by an ad-hoc committee.
The program is administered by EHS.
The specific requirements under the Bloodborne Pathogen Policy are available in a separate EHS document.
Hazardous wastes and unwanted chemicals are managed by EHS in accordance with EPA regulations.
Hazardous wastes and unwanted chemicals are picked up as requested by EHS.
The Hazardous Material Management Program is operated by EHS within the specifications established in the Hazardous Material Management Program Guidelines, which are available from EHS.
As a method of waste minimization, EHS endeavors to recycle as many materials as possible.
EHS recycles fluorescent, metal halide and mercury vapor light bulbs. These bulbs are stored in designated locations (usually inside mechanical rooms) throughout campus or may be brought directly to EHS. Contact EHS to determine proper storage areas for these bulbs. All old bulbs must have the prong connector bent and stored in a box to be picked up by EHS.
EHS also serves as a collection site for used oil.
All laboratories, defined as "a facility or area where the laboratory use of potentially hazardous materials or chemicals occurs", are under the requirements of the UA chemical Hygiene Plan unless exempted by EHS.
The UA Chemical Hygiene Plan is available from EHS.
The Office of EHS operates an emergency response unit that is available to respond to incidents of a hazardous nature on campus.
Spills or incidents of a potentially hazardous nature should be immediately reported to EHS at 348-5905 or 348-5454 after hours, on weekends, or during holidays.
EHS personnel will handle the containment and removal of the hazardous material with the assistance of a knowledgeable person from the facility or area associated with the spill.
EHS personnel will determine the need for any further action, such as ventilation of the area or evacuation.
University employees have a right to know the hazardous or potentially hazardous properties of the materials or processes associated with their work.
EHS provides right to know training on a
periodic basis to all UA employees. All employees are required to
attend this training.
All employees are required to attend this training.
It is the responsibility of the department or unit supervisor to provide information to affected employees concerning the materials that they use.
Hazard information related to chemicals is available from the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).
Employees utilizing secondary containers of chemicals such as cleaners shall properly label these containers according to their contents. Any secondary container missing a label or improperly labeled shall not be used by any employee and shall be discarded properly.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) for each chemical or potentially hazardous material which is stored or used shall be maintained at the departmental level and in each laboratory, classroom, or work area.
An extensive MSDS Library is maintained by EHS. Contact EHS for further access information.
Additional information concerning MSDS's is available in the Chemical Hygiene Plan and Laboratory Guide, which is obtained from EHS. The EHS web page at www.bama.ua.edu/~ehs also contains numerous links where MSDS’s may be obtained quickly.
Title III of the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act (SARA) requires maintenance of an inventory of all chemicals
utilized by the
Copies of all chemical purchases are routed to EHS.
Information obtained from the requisitions is entered into a database.
EHS annually files a report with ADEM and the Tuscaloosa County Local Emergency Planning Committee (LEPC), which details the amount of certain specified chemicals that are utilized on campus.
SARA Title III also required the formation of a Tuscaloosa County Local Emergency Planning Committee of which EHS personnel serves as active members.
The Radiation Safety program operates with the guidance and assistance of the Radiation Control Advisory Committee (RCAC).
All operations involving the use of radioactive materials shall be in accordance with the Radiation Safety Manual, which is available from EHS.
Wipe tests, surveys, monitoring, extremely low frequency (ELF) investigations, etc. shall be conducted by EHS as needed or requested.
DOT training and information is available from EHS (348-5905).
Due to the complexity and extent of the Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements for shipping and handling hazardous materials, these instances are reviewed by EHS on a case-by-case basis.
Contact EHS (348-5905) for information or training regarding DOT requirements.
The Underground Storage Tank (UST) program is administered by the Office of Environmental Health and Safety in conjunction with Construction Administration.
All UST's are equipped with a continuous monitoring system.
Additional information concerning the underground storage tank program is available from EHS (348-5905).
The confined space program is administered by EHS.
The specific requirements of the confined space compliance program are available under a separate document from EHS.
When maintenance or servicing is required for machines or equipment, lockout of energy isolating devices is required to ensure that the machine or equipment is stopped and isolated from all potentially hazardous energy sources prior to employees performing any servicing or maintenance where the unexpected energization or start-up of the machine or equipment, or release of stored energy could cause injury.
Lockout and tagout devices shall be capable of withstanding environmental factors to which they are exposed for the maximum amount of exposure time.
Tagout devices shall be constructed and printed to withstand environmental factors such as damp or wet environments so that the message on the tag does not deteriorate or become illegible.
Tags shall not deteriorate when used in corrosive environments.
All lockout or tagout devices should be standardized within the facility either by color, shape or size with standardized format and print. Tagout devices shall state legibly “Do Not Start. Do Not Open. Do Not Close. Do Not Energize. Do Not Operate.” along with a hazardous warning if the machine or equipment is energized.
Lockout devices should be substantial enough to prevent removal of such devices without using excessive force. Pad locks may be used but they must be made by a reputable lock company and should only have one key (master keys may not be used and duplicate keys must be kept under supervisory control at all times).
Tagout devices should be substantial enough to prevent accidental or inadvertent removal.
Tagout devices should be attached by hand and use a non-reusable, self-locking single device (such as an all-environment tolerant, nylon cable tie).
Any lockout or tagout device shall indicate the identity of the employee applying the device.
Any employee expected to participate in the Lockout Tagout Procedure must understand and be trained in the purpose, skills, recognition of hazardous energy sources and actions required to effectively follow the procedure.
Retraining is required whenever there is a change in job assignment or a change in some part of the machine or equipment that may present a new hazard or change in procedure. Retraining may also be used to reestablish proficiency or introduce new procedures.
An acceptable lockout procedure is as follows:
Alert the users of the system that it will be shut off prior to applying any controls.
Prepare for the shutdown by reviewing the equipment, hazards of the energy to be controlled and methods for controlling this energy.
Follow procedures for proper shutdown or turning off of equipment.
Physically locate all energy isolating devices that are needed to control the energy to the equipment or machine.
Place your own lockout device (padlock) on the isolated device (control switch, lever or valve) used to control the energy, even though someone may have already locked the control.
Anytime a tagout is used it should be affixed at the same location as a lockout device (or as close to the isolated device as possible).
The isolated device shall be affixed in a “safe” or “off” position (any removal of the isolated device from this position is strictly prohibited).
Place signs and/or blocks around the area warning people that the system has been locked out.
Assure all stored or residual energy is relieved, disconnected, restrained or otherwise rendered safe and continue this process if there is a possibility of accumulated energy until the hazard no longer exists.
Test the lockout to make sure the system is off and de-energized prior to starting work.
Each lockout tagout device shall be removed from the energy isolating device by the employee who applied the device (only when this individual is no longer available is the employer able to remove the device after it has been verified that the employee is not at the University, reasonable effort has been made to contact this employee and inform him/her that the device was removed and assure that this employee has been made aware that the lockout tagout device was removed before resuming work).
Never allow someone else to remove your padlock for you.
When through working, remove signs and blocks.
Re-energize the system and restart the equipment following startup procedures.
If lockout or tagout devices must temporarily
be removed to test or position the machine or equipment the following procedure
Alert the users of the system that it will be re-energized prior to removing any control.
Prepare for the startup by reviewing the equipment, hazards of the energy and methods for releasing control of this energy.
Clear machine or equipment of tools and materials, assuring that all nonessential items have been removed, essential items and parts are in place and all affected employees are notified and safely positioned or removed from the equipment.
De-energize all systems and reapply energy control measures by following the acceptable lockout procedure outlined in this document after repositioning or testing the machine or equipment if additional work must be performed.
General complaints regarding indoor air quality are investigated by EHS on a case-by-case basis after an Investigative Report Form has been filed. This form is available on the EHS web page at www.bama.ua.edu/~ehs and should be returned to EHS (Box 870178 or faxed to 348-7773).
EHS will use available methods (i.e.
analytical chemistry, air sampling, etc.) to determine the cause of the indoor
air problem and to suggest possible corrective
In the course of the investigation EHS will utilize the services of the Maintenance Department, Construction Administration and any other University department that could possibly assist in the source identification or correction.
The University of
Modifications to the current policy shall be addressed by the Health and Safety Committee.
Complaints concerning violations of the smoking policy should be addressed to EHS (348-5905).
After EHS has been notified of an indoor mold problem, a representative from EHS reviews the area affected by the mold.
EHS will treat individual rooms or entire buildings with a fungicidal/bacterialcidal agent if necessary.
After an area is treated with the fungicidal/bacterialcidal agent it should then be cleaned to remove the dead spores from the surfaces affected.
Those cleaning the surfaces (including housekeeping) should always wear gloves while cleaning the treated area.
All food service facilities on campus shall operate under the guidelines of the Tuscaloosa County Health Department.
Food Service establishments are periodically inspected by the Tuscaloosa County Health Department.
EHS coordinates all food handling inspections, complaints, training, etc, with the Tuscaloosa County Health Department.
The University provides full pest control services to UA facilities through the University Facilities department.
Contact the work order system at 348-6001 to request service, information or consultation from Pest Control Services.
Asbestos Abatement on campus is done in-house by the Asbestos Abatement Services area of the University Facilities Department.
Sampling, analysis and evaluation of asbestos materials is done by EHS in support of the abatement program.
Information concerning the asbestos hazard status of each University building and abatement procedures are available from EHS.
The lead abatement program is administered by EHS. Abatement activities are performed by specialized maintenance personnel.
Analytical services in support of the lead abatement program are provided by EHS.
The specific requirements under the Lead Abatement Program are available in a separate EHS document.
The specific requirements of the University ergonomic program including illumination are available in a separate EHS document.
Individual departments are responsible for the purchase of any specific materials or equipment suggested by ergonomic surveys.
Analytical capabilities including gas chromatography and wet chemistry are provided by EHS.
Analytical analysis is conducted in support of the Hazardous Material Management Program, Lead Abatement Program and Indoor Air Quality Program.
Other analytical testing such as water quality analysis, industrial hygiene monitoring, etc. is conducted as requested or needed.
EHS operates an in house asbestos identification and analysis laboratory that supports the Asbestos Abatement Program.
Information concerning the operational aspects of this service is provided in a separate document "Asbestos Abatement Guidelines and Training Program" which is available from EHS.
Information concerning the status of specific buildings or areas is available by request from EHS.
The number of persons permitted in classrooms, labs, assembly areas, etc. is established by the Life Safety Code.
Occupancy levels shall be determined by EHS.
Occupancy limits shall be posted in general assembly type areas and other areas as determined by EHS.
Any deviation from established limits shall be approved by the Tuscaloosa Fire Marshall.
Open flames shall not be present except by special approval. Contact EHS (348-5905) to discuss open flames and any approval that may be necessary.
Other pertinent sections of this manual which address topics such as exits, corridors and aisles, doors, space requirements, etc. shall apply as appropriate.
Grease, water and other slippery substances shall be cleaned up as soon as possible. Appropriate signage shall be placed around wet floors.
Floors shall be kept clear of tripping hazards such as cords, debris, etc.
Highly polished floors shall be treated with non-slip wax or covered with carpet runners.
Loose or torn floor coverings shall be repaired as soon as possible. Appropriate signage shall be placed near floor coverings needing repairs until repairs can be made.
Each corridor shall be at least 44 inches wide.
Corridors shall have a height of at least 7 feet.
Corridors shall not be obstructed.
Each area of a building where seats, tables, equipment, etc. are installed shall be provided with aisles leading to an exit.
Aisles shall be at least 36 inches wide.
Approval must be given by EHS to place any items in these areas.
Exit doorways shall be of a size established by NFPA Standards for occupancy of the building.
Exit doors shall be easily opened from the inside without the use of a key or any special procedures.
Exit doors shall be conspicuously designated
Stairwell doors shall not be secured in an open position unless magnetically tied into the fire alarm system.
Doors, which swing both ways, shall be provided with a viewing area.
Exit doors and stairwells must not be blocked or used for storage of equipment, supplies, etc.
In each elevator a plate shall be posted stating the number of passengers and weight that can be safely carried.
Elevators that are not authorized or designed for passenger use shall have a sign stating such.
Elevators shall be provided with an emergency alarm system that will provide a means of summoning assistance at all hours.
Labels with procedures on how to use the emergency phone are located in all elevators.
Each building or occupied portion thereof must have the appropriate number and location of exits as determined by EHS or the Fire Marshall.
Exits must never be blocked by equipment or fixtures.
All building exits shall open directly to the street or other open space that provides safe access to a public way.
At every required exit doorway an exit sign shall be provided to indicate the direction of egress.
Each exit sign shall be of such size, color and design as to be readily visible.
Exit signs shall be conspicuously posted in the proximity of the exit doorway.
Each exit sign shall be illuminated by a constant light source.
The decision to remove exit lights for any reason will be made by EHS.
Storage shall not obstruct any means of exit.
Material shall not be stored in stairwells, in corridor spaces, or mechanical rooms.
Clearance shall be allowed around lighting, ventilation grates and fire alarm panels.
Stacked material shall not be within 18 inches of the ceiling, sprinkler deflectors or other fixtures.
Combustibles shall not be stored in the attic.
Every cold storage room shall have at least one door that can be opened from the inside.
Illumination shall be provided in these areas.
The general environment in all occupied rooms shall be ventilated by natural or mechanical means or a combination thereof.
Ventilation requirements for any given space are dependent on a number of variables; therefore, Construction Administration should be consulted for a comprehensive review.
Provisions should be made for the entrance of make up air to replace air removed by exhaust ventilation.
Inlets should be located so that employees are not subjected to drafts of air having a temperature of 10 degrees or more below room temperature.
The air supply intake should be located to prevent the intake of contaminants.
The performance level of general ventilation should allow for four (4) room air exchanges per hour.
Additional information is found in the UA Chemical Hygiene Plan, which is available from EHS.
Whenever potentially harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases exist or are produced, exhaust ventilation shall be used to prevent exposure if prevention or elimination of the hazard is not practical.
The exhaust system shall be in operation continually during all processes that it is designed to service.
The exhaust system outlet shall discharge to the outside.
Further information concerning exhaust ventilation systems is found in the UA Chemical Hygiene Plan that is available from EHS.
For a determination concerning the applicability or operation of exhaust ventilation, contact EHS (348-5905); for design of exhaust systems, contact Construction Administration (348-5950).
All University areas shall be kept clean and orderly.
Floors shall be maintained in a dry condition.
Spills shall be cleaned up as soon as possible. Appropriate signage shall be placed around wet floors.
Waste shall be disposed of at intervals as determined by the rate of accumulation.
Housekeeping in laboratory areas is addressed in the UA Chemical Hygiene Plan, which is available from EHS.
Continual occupancy areas, such as offices, should have a minimum relative humidity of 30 percent.
Humidity must be considered when determining the potential heat and cold stress.
Low humidity (less than 30%) can contribute to skin dermatitis.
Engineering methods should be utilized at the time of design in order to reduce noise levels.
Engineering methods are the preferred technique for hearing conservation.
Hearing protection should only be used if engineering controls are not practical and must be approved by EHS.
The allowable noise levels for exposure times are as follows:
Noise Level (dBA) Exposure (hrs.)
At an exposure level of 85 dBA or above, a hearing conservation program is required.
EHS will provide noise level surveys and training concerning hearing conservation.
Immediate evacuation is necessary under the
following conditions: fire alarm, notification by authorized personnel or an
immediate threat to life or health.
An acceptable evacuation procedure follows (additional guidelines for fire alarm evacuation procedures can be found in the Fire Safety Guidelines available from EHS):
Stop all work, and . Just because you cannot see smoke
or smell smoke does not mean there is not a fire. The fire could be in
Stop all work,extinguish all flames and heat sources
andproceed to the nearest exit
. Just because you cannot see smoke or smell smoke does not mean there is not a fire. The fire could be in another area.Do not use elevators
Evacuate the area immediately . Do not assume that it is a drill.
Sometimes people are trapped because they thought it was a false alarm.
. Do not assume that it is a drill. Sometimes people are trapped because they thought it was a false alarm.
Do not re-enter the building until instructed to do so by authorized personnel
Employees who fail to evacuate in a timely manner will be subject to a written disciplinary action being placed in their file, while students that fail to evacuate in a timely manner are subject to 200 hours community service. In case of a fire alarm, both employees and students that fail to evacuate in a timely manner may be required to watch fire safety films. Judicial affairs handles all cases of disciplinary action in regards to students.
Other procedures associated with specific disasters can be found in The University of Alabama Disaster Plan. Contact your supervisor to discuss specific procedures relating to possible disasters such as severe weather, bomb threat, earthquake or acts of terrorism.
Guardrails shall be provided on all open roof openings, landings, balconies, porches, platforms, runways, ramps or other areas more than 42 inches above ground level or other working heights.
Guardrails shall have a vertical height of 42 to 45 inches from the top to the roof, platform or ramp level.
Guardrails shall be constructed to withstand a force of 200 lbs. applied downward or horizontally at any point.
Always wear gloves when handling hot ceramic objects.
Eye protection, gloves and aprons shall be worn whenever pouring or removing heated items.
An appropriate fire extinguisher shall be in the immediate area.
Always assure all electrical connections are secure in electric kilns prior to use.
Kilns shall only be placed in well-ventilated areas with plenty of space between the kiln and the wall or combustibles.
The space around the kiln should be kept clean and free of dusts.
Prior to installation of kilns, contact EHS (348-5905) to discuss additional concerns linked to kilns and the placement of kilns.
All compressed gas cylinders must be properly secured.
Storage and handling procedures for all compressed gases are contained in the Chemical Hygiene Plan, which is available from EHS.
Guidelines for the safe use of lasers are contained in the Laser Safety Guidelines that are available from EHS.
All class 3B and 4 lasers are reviewed by the Laser Safety Committee and a laser inventory is maintained by EHS for all lasers (class 2-4).
Personnel using UV lamps for germicidal purposes (15 watts or less) should wear glasses with side shields and opaque gloves.
For UV sources greater than 15 watts, a wrap around non-UV transmitting face mask, arm and body covering and opaque gloves should be worn.
UV sources shall have appropriate warning labels attached.
Certain sources of non-ionizing radiation (such as high magnetic fields) should be clearly labeled. Contact EHS (348-5905) if you have concerns or questions regarding a form of non-ionizing radiation and signage or labeling requirements.
Individuals with pacemakers, metallic prostheses or tools should be mindful of high magnetic fields within the area where they work. Signage is posted regarding these areas throughout campus.
Care should be taken when using a microwave.
Metal cooking utensils and aluminum foil must never be placed in a microwave oven.
Microwaves must not be operated empty.
Microwaves should be checked for loose or bent door hinges, a misaligned door, faulty interlock, worn, missing or damaged seals and pitted or burned spots around the door.
Overheating of water can result in superheated water (past its boiling temperature) without appearing to boil. Serious skin burns or scalding injuries can result from hot water erupting out of a cup after being overheated.
Place notice on microwave stating, "Leaving cooking food unattended that causes a fire alarm will result in the employee responsible receiving disciplinary action."
Spray painting should be confined to properly constructed booths.
Electrical equipment located in a spray painting area shall be explosion proof.
Spray painting booths shall be provided with adequate mechanical ventilation.
Spray booths shall be checked annually by EHS for operational effectiveness.
Prior to interior painting, the building representatives shall be notified of the start and stop date of the project.
The building representative shall disseminate painting project information to all building occupants.
Mechanical ventilation shall be provided in interior areas as necessary.
Hands and feet should be kept dry.
Shoes must always be worn.
Watches, rings and other jewelry should not be worn. High voltage workers should wear protective clothing and equipment.
Allow only qualified University electricians to make repairs. All electricians dealing with high voltage shall be trained for high voltage work.
Electrical equipment should be disconnected before making repairs.
Each disconnection for motors and appliances and each service feeder or branch circuit shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose. The University of Alabama Electrical Maintenance Department maintains records relating to these disconnections.
Ground fault interrupters (GFI) shall be used with outdoor electrical equipment and in wet or other hazardous conditions.
Equipment cords and plugs shall be grounded.
Live parts of electric equipment operating at 50 volts or more shall be enclosed to prevent accidental contact.
Entrances to rooms and other locations containing exposed live parts shall be marked with conspicuously posted warning signs forbidding the entrance of unqualified persons.
No employee shall work in close proximity to an electric circuit unless the circuit is de-energized, grounded or insulated by some means.
Equipment or circuits that are de-energized shall be rendered inoperative and have tags attached at all points where such equipment or circuits can be energized.
All work performed should follow requirements
outlined in the National Electric Code adopted by the City of
Any faulty equipment must be tagged as “Condemned” to assure other workers do not attempt to operate or use the equipment.
Cords that are frayed or damaged must not be used.
Cords must bear the Underwriters Laboratory Label (UL) or meet NFPA code requirements.
Cords shall be limited to temporary use only.
Cords shall not be placed in traveled walkways.
Cords should not be tacked to walls or baseboards.
Cords should be kept away from hot and/or wet surfaces.
Extension cords must only be used within the appropriate rating by comparing the rating on the extension cord to the rating on the temporary appliance being used.
The extension cord must accommodate three prongs if the appliance plugged into the extension cord has three prongs.
Splicing together of extension cords is not allowed, nor is the plugging together of multiple extension cords.
Never use extension cords on any heat-producing appliance such as a portable heater, lamp, blow dryer, or iron.
When a flammable liquid of one gallon or greater volume is transferred from one container to another, bonding and grounding wires shall be used.
Review the following illustration or contact EHS for details concerning proper bonding and grounding.
All employees working with high voltage should wear protective clothing and operate protected equipment.
An excavation is any man-made cut cavity, trench or depression in the surface of the earth that is formed by the removal of earth.
A competent person shall make inspections before the start of each shift, daily, as dictated by the work done in each trench, after every rainstorm (or some other weather condition that could increase hazards), when fissures, tension cracks, sloughing, undercutting, water seepage, bulging at the bottom, or a similar condition occurs, when there is a change in the size, location, or placement of the spoil pile, and when there is an indication of change or movement in adjacent structures. A competent person is classified as a person who demonstrates training, experience and knowledge of soil analysis and protective systems. This person must also have the ability to detect conditions that result in cave-ins, failures in protective systems, hazardous atmospheres and hazards associated with confined spaces. This person must have the authority to stop work when hazards arise or are created.
Personnel shall not work in or be adjacent to any excavation if there are conditions present, which may result in an injury. All personnel working near excavations shall possess the capability and capacity to identify existing and potential hazards for workers.
Prior to opening an excavation, it shall be determined if underground installations (i.e. sewer, electrical lines, etc.) are present.
The walls and face of all excavations 5 feet or more in depth that personnel will enter shall be guarded by shoring or ground sloping.
Wood sheathing or uprights shall not be less than 2 inches thick. 3/4-inch plywood sheets may also be used in addition to the 2-inch material as a means of holding loose material.
In lieu of the shoring system, hydraulic metal jack shoring units of acceptable strength may be used. Hydraulic shoring should be checked once per shift for leaking hoses and/or cylinders, broken connections, cracked nipples, pent bases, and any damage or defective part.
Excavated materials shall not be placed closer than 2 feet from the edge of the excavation.
A safe means shall be provided for workers to enter and exit the excavation area (i.e. ladder, ramp, etc.). Lifting equipment (such as riding in a backhoe bucket) does not constitute an acceptable safe means of egress.
Employees must be protected from loads or objects falling from lifting or digging equipment. Employees are not allowed to work under raised loads and are required to stand away from equipment that is being loaded.
Stop logs must be installed if there is a danger of vehicles falling into the trench.
Equipment operators or truck drivers may stay in their equipment during loading and unloading only if the equipment is properly equipped with a cab shield or adequate canopy.
An adequate warning system shall be provided for any mobile equipment operating adjacent to or without clear view of the edge of excavations.
Floor openings into which a person can step shall be guarded by railing or a barricade on all sides of the opening.
Floor opening covers shall be made of solid construction except when there is no danger of falling materials.
Unused parts of service pits shall be covered or protected by guardrails.
Any openings out in a floor for the disposal of materials shall be no larger in size than 25% of the aggregate of the total floor area, unless the lateral supports of the removed flooring remains in place.
Asphalt kettles shall not be used inside or on the roof of buildings.
Tar kettles shall not be placed in a location that will block egress from the building.
At least one 10-pound ABC fire extinguisher shall be located within 30 feet of each operating asphalt kettle and on the roof that is being covered.
Kettles must be located as far as possible from building air intakes.
Persons shall not use chairs or other furnishings to do elevated work; ladders shall be utilized.
Ladders which are broken, have missing rungs, etc. shall be immediately removed from use.
Ladders shall not be loaded in excess of their safe capacity as determined by the manufacturer.
Ladders shall be erected at a pitch of 75 degrees for maximum balance and strength.
Extension ladders shall be secured against displacement.
Ladders shall not be lashed together.
Metal ladders shall not be used in areas where they may contact electrical circuits or lines. If ladders are to be used where the worker of the ladder could contact exposed electrical equipment, the side rails must be nonconductive.
Personnel shall not stand on the top of a ladder or the step below the top.
Any damaged ladder shall be tagged “Condemned” and destroyed to ensure that it is not used by other employees.
Always follow manufacturers recommendations (usually found on the ladder) for proper ladder use.
Ladders must be maintained free of oil & grease.
Ladders must not be moved, shifted, or extended while in use. Ladders placed in areas of traffic must be secured or a barricade installed to prevent against accidental movement.
When ascending or descending a ladder, the worker must face the ladder.
Each employee using a ladder must be trained to recognize hazards (such as the nature of fall hazards in the work area, the correct procedures to erecting, maintaining, and disassembling the fall protection systems, the proper construction, use and placement of the ladder and the maximum intended load-carrying capacity) related to the ladder and proper procedures to minimize these hazards.
Prior to using the ladder, check the following items: check rails for cracks, checks or bends, check for missing or broken rungs, check the braces (step ladder), assure on a solid surface, check feet, check anchor points at the top and bottom of ladder, check where the ladder is resting, look for other work being done near you, and check for material or tools left on ladder.
A detailed diagram of the proper placement of ladders is included on the next page along with proper signage to be placed on condemned ladders.
Figures 1 & 2: The base of a straight ladder should be one foot out of every four of height to the point of support.
Figure 3: An example of the manufacturers recommendations for proper use of a ladder including instructions for the set-up of the ladder.
Figure 4: A “Condemned” tag that can be used to indicate a damaged ladder that will be destroyed.
Scaffolds shall be capable of supporting its own weight and at least 4 times the maximum intended load.
Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions when erecting the scaffold.
Each platform on all working levels shall be fully planked (at least 18 inches wide) or decked between the upright and the guardrail supports.
On scaffolds where platforms are overlapped to create a long platform, the overlap shall occur only over supports and shall not be less than 12 inches unless the platforms are nailed together or restrained to prevent movement.
Scaffold components manufactured by different manufacturers or made of dissimilar metals shall not be pieced together unless the components fit together without force and the integrity is maintained.
Supported poles, legs, posts, frames etc. shall be placed on base plates and mud sills or other adequate firm foundation.
Footings shall be level, sound, rigid, and capable of supporting the loaded scaffold without settling or displacement. Do not climb on scaffolds that wobble or lean to one side.
Unstable objects (such as barrels, boxes, loose brick or concrete blocks) shall not be used as working platforms or to support scaffolds or platform units.
Front-end loaders and other equipment may not be used to support scaffold platforms (unless specifically designed by the manufacturer for that purpose).
Prior to using a scaffold, each employee shall evaluate the scaffolding connections and the supporting surfaces for visible defects before each shift and after any occurrence which could affect the scaffold’s integrity to assure they are capable of supporting the loads to be imposed.
Any part of the scaffold, which is damaged or weakened shall be immediately repaired, replaced or removed from service. Do not use a scaffold if any pulley, block, hook or fitting is visibly worn, cracked, rusted or damaged. Do not use a scaffold if any rope is frayed, torn or visibly damaged. Do not use any scaffold tagged “Out of Service”.
Employees shall not work on scaffolds covered with snow, ice or other slippery material except as necessary for removal of such material.
Employees shall not work on scaffolds during storms or high winds unless protected by a personal fall arrest system or windscreen.
Debris shall not accumulate on platforms. Do not throw anything “overboard” unless a spotter is available; use the debris chutes or lower things by hoist or by hand.
Makeshift devices shall not be used on scaffold platforms to increase the working level.
Any employee on a scaffold more than 10 feet above the lower level shall be provided and utilize a fall protection system.
Employees erecting or dismantling scaffolds should be trained in regulations and standards, erection/dismantling, PPE and proper procedures for use of the scaffolding. Any employee who performs work while on a scaffold shall be trained (by a qualified person) in the subject matter to recognize hazards associated with the type of scaffolding being used and how to minimize those hazards. Training shall include, but is not limited to, electrical hazards, fall hazards, erecting fall protection systems, maintaining fall protection systems, disassembling fall protection systems, proper use of scaffold, proper handling of materials on scaffolding, and the maximum load capacities of the scaffold. Retraining is required when the employee demonstrates that he/she lacks the skills necessary for safe use of scaffolding or working on scaffolding, where the worksite presents a hazard that the employee has not been trained about previously, where changes in scaffolding, fall protection or a falling object presents a hazard which the employee has not been previously trained, or where the employee is noted that he/she has not retained the information.
Always level the scaffold after each move. Do not extend adjusting leg screws more than 12 inches.
Never move a mobile scaffold if anyone is on the scaffold. Chock the wheels of a rolling scaffold using the wheel blocks and also lock the wheels by using your foot to depress the wheel lock before using the scaffold.
Do not walk or work beneath a scaffold unless a wire mesh has been installed between the midrail and the toe board or planking.
Do not climb the cross braces for access to the scaffold. Do no jump from, to, or between scaffolding. Do not slide down cables, ropes or guys used for bracing. Never sit or climb on guardrails.
When using a scaffold, always keep both feet on the decking and do not lean out from the scaffold or rock the scaffold.
Additional Fall Protection Guidelines and Scaffolding Guidelines are available in the OSHA 1910 General Industry Standard.
Safety belts and lanyards shall be worn by employees whose work involves the potential of falling in excess of 16 feet. A safety belt is a device, which is usually worn around the waist and by reason of its attachment to a lanyard and lifeline or a structure, will prevent a worker from falling. A lanyard is a rope suitable for supporting one person. One end is fastened to a safety belt or harness while the other end is secured to a substantial object or a safety line.
Any lifeline, safety belt or lanyard subjected to in service loading shall be immediately removed from service for disposal. In service loading includes the use of a lifeline, safety belt or lanyard to hold or support a person or object from falling. Therefore if the lifeline, safety belt or lanyard is ever used to prevent a fall or hold an object, they shall be immediately removed from service and disposed of since the weight in the fall or hold may have damaged the supporting device and compromised its integrity for use in the future.
Lifelines shall be secured above the point of operation to an anchorage capable of supporting a minimum dead weight of 5400 pounds. The manufacturer should represent the amount of dead weight supported by any anchorage on a label affixed to the anchorage.
Lifelines used in areas where it may be subjected to cutting or abrasion shall be a minimum of 7/8-inch wire core manila rope.
For all lifeline applications, other than those noted above, a minimum of 3/4-inch manila or equivalent shall be used.
All safety belt and lanyard hardware shall be drop forged or equivalent and capable of withstanding a tensile loading of 4000 pounds without damage.
All safety belt, lanyard and lifeline usage shall be consistent with the OSHA 1926 construction standards.
The safe working load determined by the manufacturer shall be indicated on the hoist and shall not be exceeded.
The hoist operator shall stand clear of the load at all times.
The supporting structure to which the hoist is attached shall have a safe working load equal to that of the hoist.
Specific safety information about various types of hoists can be reviewed in the OSHA 1926 construction standards.
The safe working load and use guidelines as established by the manufacturer shall be followed.
Ropes, cables and chains that are worn, damaged, kinked or spliced shall not be used.
Hooks and other connectors for which no applicable manufacturer’s recommendations are available shall be tested at twice the intended load prior to use.
Recommendations for removing wire rope from
service can be reviewed in the OSHA 1926 construction standards.
Aerial lifts include the following extensible boom platforms, aerial ladders, vertical towers, articulating boom platforms, and a combination of such equipment.
Aerial baskets or platforms shall not be allowed to rest on or against any structure when personnel are on the lifting area while in an elevated position. Belting off to an adjacent pole, equipment or structure while working from an aerial lift is not permitted.
Only authorized personnel shall operate an aerial lift.
Boom and bucket load limits specified by the manufacturer shall not be exceeded.
Wheel chocks shall be installed when using a lift on an incline. Brakes shall be set when outriggers are used.
An aerial lift shall not be moved when the boom is elevated in a working position with employees in the bucket except for equipment that is specifically designed for this type of operation.
The insulated portion of an aerial lift shall not be altered in any manner that might reduce the insulating value.
A preventive maintenance program shall be established and lift controls shall be tested daily prior to use.
Any unsafe condition shall be corrected prior to operation.
Safety belts and lifelines shall be worn for safeguarding when working from an aerial lift.
Aerial lifts acquired prior to
Combustible and flammable materials shall be removed from the area for a radius of 35 feet prior to any welding or cutting.
Welding, cutting and brazing work should occur within the confines of an area designed for such work (fire resistant and segregated from adjacent areas and projects). If combustible materials or equipment cannot be removed, guards shall be used to confine heat and sparks.
At least one fire extinguisher shall be immediately available (usually on the truck) for use during the work.
No welding or cutting shall be done on drums, barrels, or tanks unless it is known they have contained no flammable or toxic materials or they have been cleaned and determined to be free of hazards by EHS. Do not perform cutting or welding on metal pipes that come in contact with combustibles if the work is close enough to cause a fire by conduction or in areas where there are flammable vapors, liquids, or tanks containing flammable liquids.
Eye protection shall be worn during all cutting, welding or brazing operations.
Welders shall wear flameproof gauntlet type gloves and aprons if appropriate.
If possible, local exhaust shall be provided at the work site. Contaminated air exhausted from a working space shall be discharged into the open air or otherwise clear of the source of intake air.
Local exhaust must be provided when the following materials are used or worked upon.
Chromium Stainless Steel
If possible, welders shall be enclosed with noncombustible screens, which have a low reflectively finish.
Screens shall permit air circulation at the flow level.
Equipment shall be shut off when operations are suspended (i.e. lunch, break, etc.).
Gas cylinders shall be secured to prevent being knocked over. Cylinders shall be stored with valve protection caps in place. Only when a cylinder is moved may it be tilted and rolled along the bottom edges. Cylinders may never be dropped, struck or permitted to strike each other violently.
Damaged equipment or cylinders must not be used.
During welding or cutting, cylinders shall be kept far enough away that sparks or flame will not reach them. If this is not possible, fire resistant shields shall be provided and utilized.
Local exhaust ventilation and respiratory protection shall be utilized when silver solder is used.
There are several buildings on campus with smoke detectors connected to the fire alarm systems. Welding operations may set off these systems. Contact EHS for further information.
Circular rip and cross cut table saws shall be guarded by a hood which shall completely enclose that portion of the saw above the material being cut.
The hood shall automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the material being cut.
All exposed parts of the saw blade under the table shall be guarded.
Swing saws shall be provided with a hood that will completely enclose the upper
half of the saw
The hood shall be designed so that it will automatically cover the lower portion of the blade, and when the saw is returned to the back of the table, the tool will rise on the tip of the fence and when the saw is moved forward, the hood will drop on top of and remain in contact with the table or material being cut.
The upper hood of a radial saw shall completely enclose the upper portion of the blade.
The sides of the lower exposed portion of the blade shall be guarded by a device that will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with the stock being cut.
All portions of a band saw blade shall be enclosed or guarded except the working portion of the blade between the bottom of the guide rolls and the table.
The cutting heads of machines which are not automatically fed shall be guarded, or templates shall be used which will enable the part to be processed without exposing the operator's fingers to the cutting zone.
Disc sanders shall have the exhaust hood so arranged as to enclose the revolving disc.
The unused part of the sanding belt shall be guarded to prevent accidental contact.
Metal lathe faceplates and chucks should have no projections; and circular shields shall be installed to prevent accidental contact.
Milling machines should have a transparent shield over the cutter that will prevent accidental contact and also serve as a chip guard.
Drill presses shall have the spindle enclosed as completely as possible.
The drill chuck shall be tightened securely with a key, which is not to be left in the chuck.
Drill press work shall be firmly clamped and a center punch used to score the material before drilling.
Circular metal saws shall be equipped with a hood guard that automatically adjusts itself to the thickness of the material being cut.
Band saws shall have completely enclosed upper and lower wheels.
The portion of the band saw blade between the upper saw guide, and the upper saw wheel shall be completely enclosed with a sliding fixture attached to the guide.
Mechanical shears shall be provided with a guard that will prevent the hands of the operator from entering the shearing zone while the shears are in motion.
Abrasive wheels shall be used only on machines provided with guards.
Guards shall be hoods that will effectively protect employees from flying wheel fragments.
Prior to mounting, all wheels shall be inspected for damage.
The spindle speed of the machine shall be checked before mounting the wheel to be certain it does not exceed the maximum operating speed marked on the wheel.
Guards shall enclose moving parts to prevent employee injury.
Any part of a belt and pulley drive, which is seven feet or less above the working level shall be guarded, except for fan belt drives on motor vehicles and internal combustion engines fan belt drives guarded by side screens.
All exposed parts of shafting seven feet or less above the working level shall be guarded.
Any exposed part of a flywheel or other moving part seven feet or less above the working level shall be guarded.
Material shall be piled with consideration given to stability of the pile but in no case exceeding 10 feet in height and 20 feet in diameter.
Storage shall be orderly and neat.
Hot ashes, cinders, or coals may not be deposited in or near any building or grounds area on campus. These items may be placed in noncombustible or metal receptacles so designated by the University.
Employees should be acclimated to work in hot environments. The general rule for new employees is one and one half hours on day one followed by an increase of 1.5 hours per day until 8 hours is reached.
Hot jobs should be scheduled for the cooler part of the day when possible.
Schedule routine maintenance in hot areas for the cooler seasons.
In extreme heat alter the work-rest regimen to permit more rest time.
Provide cool areas for rest.
Increase water and electrolyte fluid.
Supervisors should be trained in the recognition of the various types of heat-induced illnesses (heat cramps, heat exhaustion, heat rash, heatstroke).
All personnel working in hot areas should be instructed on the effects of non-occupational factors such as drugs, alcohol and obesity on tolerance to occupational heat stress.
Extreme heat exposure may require the use of personal air conditioning such as a vortex tube.
Acclimatization to cold is possible but not as readily achieved as acclimatization to heat.
General or spot heating should be used to increase temperature in the work area whenever possible.
The air velocity in refrigerated rooms should be reduced as much as possible and should not exceed 1m/sec.
At temperatures below 30oF, metal handles should be covered with insulating material.
Arrange work to minimize standing still.
The skin should not be exposed when the wind-chill factor is -26oF or below.
Workers exposed to air temperatures of 36oF or lower whose clothing gets wet should be given dry clothes immediately and treated for hypothermia.
Alter the work-rest regimen to permit more rest time.
Increase water and electrolyte fluid intake.
Wear protective clothing such as hats, gloves, coveralls, coats, etc. whenever possible.
A well balanced diet is very important when working in a cold environment. Restricted diets can deprive the body of nutrients needed to withstand cold stress.
Power mowers shall bear a label certifying they have been constructed in accordance with the ANSI standard and shall have caution lights attached to the mowers, which remain lit while the mower is moving.
Eye protection shall be worn whenever mowers or trimmers are operated.
The controls for stopping, starting, speed control, etc. shall be clearly identified by a durable label.
The discharge shall be guarded so that grass or debris will not discharge directly toward the operator.
The area to be cut shall be examined for loose objects such as cans, bottles, wires, rocks, etc.
The engine shall be stopped whenever filling the gas tank, adjusting the cutting height or servicing the mower or trimmers.
Appropriate foot protection shall be worn when operating a power mower or weed eater.
Slopes or banks shall be cut in an appropriate manner as to prevent overturning.
No smoking is allowed during refueling.
Overhead and underground power conductors shall be considered when engaged in pruning, trimming, removing or clearing trees.
Only qualified trimmers may remove limbs, branches, etc. in association with electrical line clearance.
Protective eyewear and hardhats shall be worn by all tree trimmers and individuals grinding tree stumps.
Personal protective equipment shall be used whenever necessary to reduce or eliminate absorption, inhalation or physical contact with an agent or source.
Engineering controls shall be utilized prior to personal protective equipment whenever possible.
Protective equipment shall provide adequate protection against the hazards for which they are designed.
They shall be easily cleaned or disposable.
They shall be for individual use whenever possible.
Personal protective equipment shall not be used if visibly contaminated or damaged.
Personal protective equipment shall be provided at employer expense to employees, which use protective equipment as a part of their work.
Protective clothing shall be worn by employees whose work exposes parts of their bodies to hazardous substances or objects.
Protective clothing shall include but is not limited to: lab coats, reflective vests, shoe covers, coveralls, steel toes shoes, apron, etc.
Disposable clothing shall be properly disposed of after each use or whenever the clothing becomes visibly contaminated or damaged.
Non-disposable clothing shall be removed whenever visibly contaminated and laundered prior to subsequent use.
Gloves shall be specifically chosen for their effectiveness in the prevention of skin contact with the hazardous agent or object.
Loose fitting gloves shall not be worn when working with moving machinery.
Disposable gloves shall be disposed of properly after each use. Disposable gloves used during the collection of biohazard waste shall be disposed of as if part of biohazard waste after each collection process.
Eye protection shall be worn by all employees working in locations where eye injury hazards or potential hazards exist.
Eye hazards may include splashing, flying particles, mechanical abrasion, cutting, welding, etc.
Eye protection devices includes ANSI approved safety glasses, goggles, face shields, etc.
Further guidelines are in the UA Chemical Hygiene Plan and Laboratory Guide and the Laser Safety Guidelines, which are available from EHS.
Eyewashes shall be provided in all areas such as laboratories, preparation areas, etc. where the eye injury hazard warrants.
Showers shall be provided as warranted by the hazards present.
Shower and eyewash applicability shall be determined by EHS.
Employees working in areas where there is a possibility of a head injury resulting from impact of flying objects or from electrical shock shall be protected by hard hats.
Hard hats shall meet ANSI specifications.
Hearing protection shall be used whenever a hearing conservation program is in effect.
Foam type hearing protectors shall be used.
If hearing protection devices other than foam type are used, they must be approved by EHS.
Respirator selection and use shall be consistent with the UA Respiratory Protection Program document that is available from EHS.
Any individual whose work requires a respirator must be fit tested for that respirator.
Fire alarm pull stations shall only be used for emergency purposes.
Each pull station shall be securely mounted.
Pull stations, smoke detectors, heat detectors and other fire alarm devices shall not be obstructed.
All fire alarm devices shall be tested annually to insure operational effectiveness.
All system changes, alterations and additions must be approved by EHS.
All fire alarm systems are inventoried and tested annually.
Most UA Campus buildings have smoke detector activation. Steam, smoke, dusts and other pollutants along with the work being performed that creates these pollutants (welding, jack hammering, sweeping, etc.) can activate the fire alarm system. To prevent fire alarms in areas protected by a fire alarm system where work must occur, contact the UA Fire Alarm Technician (348-5905), EHS (348-5905), or UAPD Dispatch Office (34-5454) to schedule or request an area be zoned out for work. The first offense is documented as failure to have an area zoned out, while the next offense will result in the employee responsible receiving a written disciplinary action for failure to follow procedures. False fire alarms are unnecessary. False alarms require fire trucks to respond to a building where there is not a fire, while other areas in Tuscaloosa may need to fire department's assistance but their response is delayed due to an unnecessary response to the UA campus.
While cooking or heating food, it is imperative that someone stay with the food at all times. Never leave cooking food unattended. If a false alarm occurs which could have been prevented, the employee responsible will receive a written disciplinary action in their file.
Portable fire extinguishers shall be maintained in a fully charged and operational condition.
All extinguishers shall be inspected monthly by EHS.
Discharged or inoperative extinguishers should be reported to EHS.
Extinguishers shall be conspicuously located where they will be readily accessible.
Extinguishers shall not be obstructed.
Extinguishers shall be installed on brackets, hangers, or placed in cabinets.
Extinguishers shall be kept in their designated place at all times when not in use.
Persons who remove, tamper with or vandalize fire safety equipment are subject to disciplinary action and/or prosecution.
ABC, carbon dioxide, or halon extinguishers are approved for use by EHS. Halon extinguishers are being phased out and removed from areas on campus.
ABC extinguishers are recharged as needed by EHS.
Contact EHS if an extinguisher is missing or discharged.
Special extinguishing systems are present at
various locations on campus. These
While some special extinguishing systems are only required to have annual inspections, commercial kitchen hood systems (food service areas) must be inspected every six months and filters must be cleaned on a routine basis to insure operational effectiveness.
Training on the operation of commercial kitchen hood systems and other special extinguishing systems can be scheduled by contacting EHS.
Water flow alarms shall be provided on all sprinkler systems.
All sprinkler systems shall be inspected according to NFPA guidelines for operational effectiveness.
The storage and handling procedures for flammable hazards are addressed in the UA Chemical Hygiene Guide, which is available from EHS.
For information on a specific flammable material, contact EHS (348-5905).
Vehicles with a capacity of 2.5 or more cubic yards, which are used to haul material shall be equipped with a warning device which operates automatically when the vehicle is backing and is audible from 200 feet.
Vehicles equipped with a flashing caution light shall assure the caution light is working when the vehicle is being operated.
Vehicles having an obstructed view of the rear shall not be backed unless it has an automatic warning device or an observer is used for giving directions.
Only drivers authorized by UA and with a
Loaded vehicles shall not be moved until the load is safe and secured.
Vehicles shall not exceed their authorized or safe speed.
Vehicle operators shall obey all applicable traffic laws.
Vehicles shall be shut off and in the proper parking gear if left unattended.
Seat belts shall be worn when operating vehicles.
Persons shall not ride on running boards, fenders, trailers or in the rear of trucks.
Windshields shall be kept clear of anything that may obstruct the driver’s view.
Vehicles shall be inspected daily. A checklist is provided in Appendix B. Repairs shall be promptly made.
Materials shall be loaded so shifting will not create a hazard.
Heavy equipment and material shall be securely fastened.
Red flags during the day and red lights at night shall be attached to material that extends more than 4 feet beyond the back of the vehicle or more than 2 feet beyond the front of the vehicle.
Trailers and equipment shall be securely coupled when towed and joined by a safety chain.
Parking, storing or repairing gasoline-fueled vehicles shall not be allowed in any building or area that could create a fire hazard.
No smoking is allowed during refueling.
Vehicle servicing including tire changes, battery boosting or charging, etc. shall only be done by trained personnel.
Contact the local police department (UAPD if on campus at 348-5454) for an investigation of the incident.
Contact the UA Office of Risk Management (348-4534) for details concerning insurance coverage, vehicle repair, etc.
All accidents involving UA vehicles will be investigated by the Office of Risk Management.
Persons operating a bicycle on campus are subject to the UA Traffic and Parking regulations.
Bicycle operators shall yield the right of way to pedestrians.
Bicycles shall be parked in racks only and shall not be attached to handrails.
Bicycles are not permitted in UA buildings.
The load capacity shall be clearly marked on all forklifts.
Forklifts shall be fitted with an overhead guard.
Forklifts should not be operated in atmospheres containing hazardous quantities of combustible vapors, gases or dusts.
Forklifts shall be equipped with:
Brakes that will bring them to a complete stop when fully loaded.
A parking brake to prevent movement when unattended.
A warning horn.
An audible back up warning device.
Aslip resistant surface on the pedals.
All personnel who operate a forklift shall
complete an appropriate training course.
Training shall consist of a combination of formal instruction, practical
training and evaluation of the operator's performance in the workplace. For specific training topics, see the
appropriate OSHA 1910 regulation. If an employee needs this
training, contact EHS for more information.
If an employee needs this training, contact EHS for more information.
Refresher training shall be provided when the operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner, when the operator has an incident or near-miss incident involving the forklift, when the operator is assigned to drive a different type of forklift or when conditions in the workplace have changed and could effect safe operation of the forklift. Evaluations of all operators shall be conducted once every 3 years.
Employees shall not ride on the forks. Stunt driving or horseplay shall not be permitted.
The forks shall always be carried as low as possible and the forklifts shall be operated at a safe speed.
Seat belts shall be worn by forklift operators.
Anytime the forklift is found to be in need of repair, defective or in anyway unsafe, the forklift shall be taken out of service until it has been restored to safe operating condition.
Mechanical stops able to withstand the force of momentum of the robot traveling at maximum speed and carrying a full load shall be used to restrict the operating envelope to the range of motion necessary to the particular operation.
Fixed guards shall be placed around the perimeter of the robot-operating envelope, and the guards shall be designed to prevent inadvertent or unauthorized entry and to capture objects dropped or ejected by the robot.
Perimeter guards should allow sufficient clearance between the guard and the operating envelope so a person cannot be trapped between the two.
Access gates in the perimeter guards shall be electrically interlocked to interrupt drive power should they be opened during the automatic cycle of the robot.
All solid-state electronic devices associated with controlling the robot should be shielded from possible radio frequency interference that could cause loss of control.
Consideration shall be given to guards or barriers to reduce noise levels.
Fixed guards shall be used for power transmission parts.
Guards must cover all moving parts to prevent the operator’s body from coming in contact with them.
Lockout tagout procedures shall be utilized whenever servicing the robot.
An amber light shall be installed on the robot so as to be conspicuously visible from anywhere around the robot. This light shall be on whenever the robot is energized.
Warning signs shall be placed around the robot to make those who enter the operating envelope aware of hazards that exist.
No person shall be allowed to work with a robot until they have been trained in the safe operation of the robotics.
It is the responsibility of the lab or area supervisor to provide or arrange to be provided this training.
Documentation of this training shall be maintained by the lab or area supervisor.
Teach panels shall contain an emergency stop switch with which an operator may stop robot movement by interrupting the machine power.
The emergency stop shall be hard wired into the drive-power stop circuit and not interfaced through a computer.
While in the teach mode, the speed of the robot movement shall be limited to 6 inches per second or less.
The robot shall be programmed so an operator cannot place it into automatic cycle using the teach panel but must return to the master control panel.
The automatic cycle shall only be initiated at the main control panel.
The robot shall be anchored according to manufacturer specifications.
The master control panel shall be located outside the operating envelope and be located so that the robot can be seen while programming or operating the master controls.
Locking type disconnects shall be provided for all sources of energy to the robot including electricity, air and hydraulics.
A means shall be provided to release stored
energy prior to servicing the robot.
Asbestos Abatement Guidelines & Training Program
Basic Ergonomic Guidelines for Office Work
Biological Safety Manual
Bloodborne Pathogen Policy
Chemical Hygiene Plan and Laboratory Guide
Confined Space Entry Guidelines
EHS Service Guide
Exhaust Ventilation Guidelines
Fire Safety Guidelines
General Safety Manual
Hazardous Material Management Program Guidelines
Hazardous Material Response Training
IAQ Investigation Procedures & Protocols
ISO Environmental Management Program
Laser Safety Guidelines
Lead Abatement Guidelines for Contracted Projects
Lead Control Program
Medical Waste Management Plan
(Applies to Fraternities, Sororities and Social Organizations at The
Plan for the Prevention of the Transmission of Tuberculosis
Radiation Safety Manual
Radiation Safety Training Manual
Respiratory Protection Program
Social Event Safety Guidelines
Spill Prevention Control & Countermeasures Plan
ITEM TO BE CHECKED
FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
1. Tire pressure: adjust to cold pressure as indicated by the manufacturer in all tires including the spare.
2. Tire condition: check for tread wear, cuts and penetrating objects.
3. Exterior lights: check to assure they are operational, can be clearly seen and have no broken covers (standard headlights, high beam headlights, parking lights, reverse/backing lights, tail lights and brake lights)
4. Interior lights: check to assure they are operational and easily seen by driver (speedometer, turn signals, overhead, instrument panel)
5. Windows and interior features: inspect for cracks, chips, etc. in windshields and assure that all windows open and close properly
6. Wipers and washer: inspect to assure they are operational and do not streak
7. Mirrors: inspect for cracks and ensure mount is firm (interior rearview and left and right exteriors)
8. Seatbelts: inspect for frays, tears, etc.
9. Door locks and release handles: inspect to assure they are functional
10. Brakes and emergency brakes: working properly (not soft when depressed) and releases properly
11. Fluids: assure correct level (brake fluid aligned with indicator mark on reservoir, power steering fluid in operating range when tested warm, coolant recovery tank filled to cold range, engine oil in operating range when engine idling, and windshield washer fluid at proper level)
12. Hoses: inspect for flexibility, cracks, splits or signs of leakage (radiator, heater, air conditioning, and power steering)
13. Belts: inspect for tightness, cracks or signs of wear (fan belt, power steering belt, and air conditioning belt)
14. Radiator core: remove debris
15. License plate: assure securely fastened
16. Driver’s license: assure present on individual driving vehicle