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Landmark Case

Case Name: Frank ADDINGTON v. State of TEXAS

Date, Location, Cite: 1979 TX 
441 US 418, 99 S.Ct... 1804

Pt. committed under "clear & convincing" (& unequivocal) standard. Appealed to require "beyond a reasonable doubt" Supreme Court. said that "preponderance of evidence (PoE)" (51%) is too weak, "Beyond Reasonable Doubt"(99.9%) too strict, "Clear & Convincing" (~75%) best. Also struck the word "unequivocal" as too strict. This was a UNANIMOUS dec. Eleven states have laws that require "Beyond Reasonable Doubt". They are still valid; this case sets minimum. What would happen if a case were appealed from one of those 11? "Civil Commitment for any purpose ...requires due process protection." see also Vitek v. Jones and Cooper v. Oklahoma (criminal)