Greece was at the heart of the ancient world. Notice its proximity to Italy on one side and Asia Minor (modern Turkey) on the other. The coast of Asia Minor, called “Ionia” (not to be confused with the Ionian Sea), was checkered with important Greek cities, such as Ephesus, where a huge temple to Artemis stood. The Aegean Sea contained countless islands populated by Greeks. The Macedonians to the north were Greek, as were many of the people in Sicily.