Glimpses: Muslims' Contributions to Science.

 
 

MEDICINE 
     
  • Development of psychotherapy and other therapeutic methods. 
  • Research work on smallpox and measles. 
  • Production of medical treatment and medical drugs. 
  • Extensive research on properties of scores of drugs. 
  • Distinguished mediastinitis from pleurisy
  • Recognized the contagious nature of disease and ability of disease to spread to water and soil. 
  • Discover the existence of blood capillaries. 
  • Use and discussion of animal psychology and physiology. 
  • Constructed magnificent, well organized, and well equipped hospitals that, at that time, were unrivaled in the world and whose doors were open for all the public. 
  • Provided the first detailed study of the human eye.
 

CHEMISTRY  
& 
PHARMACY
     
  • Discovered the use of chemistry for medical purposes. 
  • Establishment of the first apothecary shop. 
  • Production of the first pharmacopeadia. 
  • The first to discover and identify three chief acids : nitric, sulfuric, and hydrochloric. 
  • Discovered the arts of distillation, crystallization, and oxidation.
  • Classified substances into mineral, vegetable, and animal origin. 
 

PHYSICS
     
  • Discovered principle of inertia. 
  • Used and implemented experimental physics. 
  • Used hydrostatic balance. 
  • Discussed phenomena of the expansion of flat objects. 
  • Transformed the study of optics. 
  • Provided the first optical study of the eye ball. 
  • Discovered the reflection of light in the anatomy of the eye and the the formation of image in the retina.
 

MATHEMATICS
     
  • Introduced Arabic numerals on basis of Indian numbers.

  • (Actually the numbers used in the west are originally Arabic numbers that were used to replace the roman numerals).  
  • Discovered fractions. 
  • Invented logarithms. 
  • Invented the science of Algebra. (Algebra is an Arabic word meaning binding together). 
  • Revived the science of trigonometry and discovered the laws of sine's and cosine's. 
  • Related geometry with algebra and sought geometric solutions for Algebraic problems. 
 

GEOGRAPHY  
 
ASTRONOMY
     
  • Muslim geographers contributed their works on physical, mathematical, topographical, regional, human, historical, descriptive, and specific geography 
  • They considered the earth as spherical in shape, divided into two equal parts the equator, and having 360 degrees of circumference, with 90 degrees from the equator to each pole.

  • (which is the modern geographical view of the earth)  
  • Established, correctly, the circumference of the earth
  • Measured the length of the earth and terrestrial degrees. 
  • Devised latitudinal and longitudinal tables for places throughout the world. 
  • Made detailed study of solar and lunar eclipses and contributed major works on astronomy. 
 
And many more ...... !

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