What Every Women Should Know ....

THE MYTH & THE REALITY
WOMEN IN ISLAM VERSUS WOMEN IN THE JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION

By Dr. Sherif Abdel Azeem


CONTENTS


1. INTRODUCTION


2. EVE'S FAULT ?


3. EVE'S LEGACY


4. SHAMEFUL DAUGHTERS ?


5. FEMALE EDUCATION ?


6. UNCLEAN IMPURE WOMAN ?


7. BEARING WITNESS


8. ADULTERY


9. VOWS


10. WIFE'S PROPERTY ?


11. DIVORCE


12. MOTHERS


13. FEMALE INHERITANCE ?


14. PLIGHT OF WIDOWS


15. POLYGAMY


16. THE VEIL


17. EPILOGUE


NOTES

1. The Globe and Mail, Oct. 4,1994.

2. Leonard J. Swidler, Women in Judaism: the Status of Women in Formative Judaism (Metuchen, N.J: Scarecrow Press, 1976) p. 115.

3. Thena Kendath, "Memories of an Orthodox youth" in Susannah Heschel, ed. On being a Jewish Feminist (New York: Schocken Books, 1983), pp. 96-97.

4. Swidler, op. cit., pp. 80-81.

5. Rosemary R. Ruether, "Christianity", in Arvind Sharma, ed., Women in World Religions (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987) p. 209.

6. For all the sayings of the prominent Saints, see Karen Armstrong, The Gospel According to Woman (London: Elm Tree Books, 1986) pp. 52-62. See also Nancy van Vuuren, The Subversion of Women as Practiced by Churches, Witch-Hunters, and Other Sexists (Philadelphia: Westminister Press) pp. 28-30.

7. Swidler, op. cit., p. 140.

8. Denise L. Carmody, "Judaism", in Arvind Sharma, ed., op. cit., p. 197.

9. Swidler, op. cit., p. 137.

10. Ibid., p. 138.

11. Sally Priesand, Judaism and the New Woman (New York: Behrman House, Inc., 1975) p. 24.

12. Swidler, op. cit., p. 115.

13. Lesley Hazleton, Israeli Women The Reality Behind the Myths (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1977) p. 41.

14. Gage, op. cit. p. 142.

15. Jeffrey H. Togay, "Adultery," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. II, col. 313. Also, see Judith Plaskow, Standing Again at Sinai: Judaism from a Feminist Perspective (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1990) pp. 170-177.

16. Hazleton, op. cit., pp. 41-42.

17. Swidler, op. cit., p. 141.

18. Matilda J. Gage, Woman, Church, and State (New York: Truth Seeker Company, 1893) p. 141.

19. Louis M. Epstein, The Jewish Marriage Contract (New York: Arno Press, 1973) p. 149.

20. Swidler, op. cit., p. 142.

21. Epstein, op. cit., pp. 164-165.

22. Ibid., pp. 112-113. See also Priesand, op. cit., p. 15.

23. James A. Brundage, Law, Sex, and Christian Society in Medieval Europe ( Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987) p. 88.

24. Ibid., p. 480.

25. R. Thompson, Women in Stuart England and America (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974) p. 162.

26. Mary Murray, The Law of the Father (London: Routledge, 1995) p. 67.

27. Gage, op. cit., p. 143.

28. For example, see Jeffrey Lang, Struggling to Surrender, (Beltsville, MD: Amana Publications, 1994) p. 167.

29. Elsayyed Sabiq, Fiqh al Sunnah (Cairo: Darul Fatah lile'lam Al-Arabi, 11th edition, 1994), vol. 2, pp. 218-229.

30. Abdel-Haleem Abu Shuqqa, Tahreer al Mar'aa fi Asr al Risala (Kuwait: Dar al Qalam, 1990) pp. 109-112.

31. Leila Badawi, "Islam", in Jean Holm and John Bowker, ed., Women in Religion (London: Pinter Publishers, 1994) p. 102.

32. Amir H. Siddiqi, Studies in Islamic History (Karachi: Jamiyatul Falah Publications, 3rd edition, 1967) p. 138.

33. Epstein, op. cit., p. 196.

34. Swidler, op. cit., pp. 162-163.

35. The Toronto Star, Apr. 8, 1995.

36. Sabiq, op. cit., pp. 318-329. See also Muhammad al Ghazali, Qadaya al Mar'aa bin al Taqaleed al Rakida wal Wafida (Cairo: Dar al Shorooq, 4th edition, 1992) pp. 178-180.

37. Ibid., pp. 313-318.

38. David W. Amram, The Jewish Law of Divorce According to Bible and Talmud ( Philadelphia: Edward Stern & CO., Inc., 1896) pp. 125-126.

39. Epstein, op. cit., p. 219.

40. Ibid, pp 156-157.

41. Muhammad Abu Zahra, Usbu al Fiqh al Islami (Cairo: al Majlis al A'la li Ri'ayat al Funun, 1963) p. 66.

42. Epstein, op. cit., p. 122.

43. Armstrong, op. cit., p. 8.

44. Epstein, op. cit., p. 175.

45. Ibid., p. 121.

46. Gage, op. cit., p. 142.

47. B. Aisha Lemu and Fatima Heeren, Woman in Islam (London: Islamic Foundation, 1978) p. 23.

48. Hazleton, op. cit., pp. 45-46.

49. Ibid., p. 47.

50. Ibid., p. 49.

51. Swidler, op. cit., pp. 144-148.

52. Hazleton, op. cit., pp 44-45.

53. Eugene Hillman, Polygamy Reconsidered: African Plural Marriage and the Christian Churches (New York: Orbis Books, 1975) p. 140.

54. Ibid., p. 17.

55. Ibid., pp. 88-93.

56. Ibid., pp. 92-97.

57. Philip L. Kilbride, Plural Marriage For Our Times (Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey, 1994) pp. 108-109.

58. The Weekly Review, Aug. 1, 1987.

59. Kilbride, op. cit., p. 126.

60. John D'Emilio and Estelle B. Freedman, Intimate Matters: A history of Sexuality in America (New York: Harper & Row Publishers, 1988) p. 87.

61. Ute Frevert, Women in German History: from Bourgeois Emancipation to Sexual Liberation (New York: Berg Publishers, 1988) pp. 263-264.

62. Ibid., pp. 257-258.

63. Sabiq, op. cit., p. 191.

64. Hillman, op. cit., p. 12.

65. Nathan Hare and Julie Hare, ed., Crisis in Black Sexual Politics (San Francisco: Black Think Tank, 1989) p. 25.

66. Ibid., p. 26.

67. Kilbride, op. cit., p. 94.

68. Ibid., p. 95.

69. Ibid.

70. Ibid., pp. 95-99.

71. Ibid., p. 118.

72. Lang, op. cit., p. 172.

73. Kilbride, op. cit., pp. 72-73.

74. Sabiq, op. cit., pp. 187-188.

75. Abdul Rahman Doi, Woman in Shari'ah (London: Ta-Ha Publishers, 1994) p. 76.

76. Menachem M. Brayer, The Jewish Woman in Rabbinic Literature: A Psychosocial Perspective (Hoboken, N.J: Ktav Publishing House, 1986) p. 239.

77. Ibid., pp. 316-317. Also see Swidler, op. cit., pp. 121-123.

78. Ibid., p. 139.

79. Susan W. Schneider, Jewish and Female (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984) p. 237.

80. Ibid., pp. 238-239.

81. Alexandra Wright, "Judaism", in Holm and Bowker, ed., op. cit., pp. 128-129

82. Clara M. Henning, "Cannon Law and the Battle of the Sexes" in Rosemary R. Ruether, ed., Religion and Sexism: Images of Woman in the Jewish and Christian Traditions (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974) p. 272.

83. Donald B. Kraybill, The riddle of the Amish Culture (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989) p. 56.

84. Khalil Gibran, Thoughts and Meditations (New York: Bantam Books, 1960) p. 28.

85. The Times, Nov. 18, 1993.


Note in addition:

This manuscript has been published by WAMY, 1995.

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